👉Sinusitis is a an inflammation/infection or swelling of the cavities around the nasal passage called sinuses. Healthy sinuses are small cavities filled with air behind your cheekbones and forehead, when infected get blocked and filled with fluid where germs can grow. 👉Sinus blockage can be caused by several reasons such as common cold, allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps or even a deviated septum. 👉Consult our Sinus Specialists to diagnose the cause of your Sinusitis and the ideal treatment for the same. Dr Bulu Nahak ENT is equipped with state of the art facilities and the best panel of sinus specialist doctor in Bhubaneswar Consult Dr Bulu Nahak ENT Specialist Usthi Hospital for comprehensive sinus treatment. 👉What are Sinuses? There are four pairs of sinuses in our head. Sinuses are hollow, air-filled and interconnected spaces located around the nose in the skull. All these spaces or cavities open into the nose through tiny openings called ostia. As both sinuses and nose are lined with the same soft tissue called mucosa, any infection that affects one affects the other. When this mucosa gets infected, the resulting condition is called sinusitis. It is also called rhino-sinusitis (‘rhino’ is a medical term for the nose). 👉The four pairs of sinuses are as follows: – Frontal sinus (in forehead) Maxillary sinus (behind cheeks) Ethmoid sinus (behind eyes) Sphenoid sinus (deep behind the ethmoids) The accepted functions of sinuses include, relative weight reduction of the front part of the skull (sinuses are hollow and filled with air), air-conditioning, and humidification of air that’s breathed in, giving added resonance to voice and lending mechanical rigidity. 👉Types of Sinusitis Acute sinus infection – If the infection is present or less than 30 days, this is also called as acute sinusitis due to infection, or acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Sub-acute sinus – An infection present for over 1 month but less than 3 months. Chronic sinus infection- An infection that has been present for more than 3 months. Chronic sinusitis is further categorized into chronic with or without nasal polyps, or allergic fungal sinusitis. 👉Causes of Sinusitis Sinus infections can result from anything disrupting. Airflow into the sinuses Mucous drainage out of the sinuses Common colds, allergies or similar conditions causes the lining of the sinuses and also the adjacent nasal passage to become swollen, thus blocking the ostia (the tiny openings of sinuses that open up into nasal cavity) Sinuses can also get blocked by tumours, growths or structural abnormalities lying close to the sinus openings. Diseases like cystic fibrosis, or due to drying medications like antihistamines or anti-allergic drugs, or simply because of breathing in air which lacks humidity or is dry, can cause mucous drainage to get hindered because of thickening of secretions. When cilia (tiny hair-like structures that direct flow of mucous out of the sinuses), gets damaged by irritants such as smoke, its ability to move mucous in the right direction weakens and it gets accumulated in sinuses. When mucous goes stagnant in sinuses, it becomes rich, thriving and fertile ground for the growth of bacteria and viruses and sometimes for fungus as well (e.g. in AIDS patients or in immunocompromised individuals). In some case, these microbes can cause or worsen sinus blockage. 👉Precautions & Treatments An ENT physician will check the nasal cavity to seek signs of swelling or redness, gathered pus and hindered drainage along the mucosal lining of the nasal passages. To get a complete status, the doctor can recommend endoscopic examination of nose along with CT scans of nose and paranasal sinuses. An ENT physician generally prescribes medical treatment for acute sinusitis. However, chronic or recurrent sinusitis need proper investigation to find out their cause. The treatment prescribed may involve an endoscopic procedure called FESS or functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Self-medication is not at all recommended. Avoid using topical nasal decongestant drops such as Otrivin and Nasivion that could lead to a tough to treat condition known as rhinitis medicamentosa on overuse. If sinusitis is not treated it can lead to lot of discomfort and pain. If there are other health problems like asthma, along with sinusitis, then the patient’s health might deteriorate. In rare cases, not getting sinusitis treated might lead to serious conditions like bone infection, meningitis, or brain abscess. 👉Symptoms Most patients with sinus infection will show some of the following symptoms: – Stuffy nose Obstructed nose Cough Headache Recurring throat pain Feeling of pain or pressure in face Weakened sense of smell Trickling sensation / irritation in the throat Recurring urge to clear the throat
pediatric otolaryngologist or ear, nose and throat ENT doctor, specializes in the medical and surgical care of infants, children and adolescents with disorders that affect the ears, nose, throat, head and neck. Pediatric otolaryngologists diagnose and treat a variety of health conditions, including tonsillitis, laryngomalacia (a birth defect), ear infections, and sleep apnea. A pediatric otolaryngologist typically: Evaluates a patient's medical history and educates the child and the child’s family about disease prevention Performs exams of the ear, nose, throat, head and neck Performs hearing and speech screenings Orders and interprets laboratory and imaging tests and prescribes medications Diagnoses and treats acute and chronic diseases and conditions that affect the ears, nose, throat, head and neck including ear and throat infections, voice box problems, thyroid disease, and swallowing problems Related to:Pediatric otolaryngology, pediatric ENT, ear tubes, pediatric allergy care, tonsillectomy, hemangioma treatment, ear infection treatment, pediatric sinus care, adenoid disease treatment, tonsil treatment, sleep apnea treatment Our board-certified pediatric ENT specialists have extensive experience in evaluating and treating all problems that can affect the ears, nose, throat, sinuses and airways of children. Whether it is a chronic illness or new problem, our pediatric otolaryngologist-head and neck surgeons are skilled in accurately diagnosing and tailoring an effective treatment plan for your child. After a thorough evaluation and taking an in-depth history of symptoms, your ENT physician will create a treatment plan aimed at providing relief for your child. Treatments could include environmental changes, medication and/or minimally invasive surgery. Make an appointment with a pediatric ENT specialist Please call 7008713982 to schedule a consultation or make an appointment with Dr Bulu Nahak
#Adenoids in Children Ear, Nose and Throat
The adenoids are patches of tissue that sit at the very back of the nasal passage/top of the throat. Some parents may confuse the adenoids with the tonsils, which are visible at the back of the throat. However, the adenoids aren't directly visible in a routine nose or throat exam. Like tonsils, the adenoids do important work for babies and young children, as the adenoids are one of the first lines of defense when harmful bacteria and viruses are inhaled or swallowed. As your child ages, the adenoids lose significance as the body learns how to fight infection. Adenoids begin to shrink in childhood. They continue to decrease in size into teen/adult years. Adenoids do not typically grow back, although that is not always the case. #Symptoms of Enlarged Adenoids Because they are on the front line of a body's defenses, it's possible that the adenoids may swell temporarily as they fight off infections. Multiple infections, allergies and other factors may cause chronic enlargement. When adenoids become enlarged, your child may experience: -Difficulty breathing through the nose. -Bad breath and dry lips from breathing through the mouth. -Sounding as if the nose is pinched or stuffed. -Frequent sinus symptoms. -Snoring. -Restless sleep or disruptive sleep apnea. -Ongoing middle ear infections or fluid build-up in school age. If your doctor suspects enlarged adenoids, he or she may perform a basic physical examination of the nose, throat, ears and feeling the neck along the jaw in order to diagnose. He or she may also use an x-ray or an endoscope, a long flexible tube with a light on one end. #Treatment of Enlarged Adenoids If your child has minimal symptoms, no treatment is typically needed. Your doctor may recommend a nasal spray to help reduce swelling and potentially an antibiotic if the infection is bacterial. Another treatment for more severe cases is an adenoidectomy. #Adenoidectomy in Children Adenoidectomy is the removal of the adenoids via surgery through the open mouth, with your child under general anesthesia for around 30 minutes. It is an outpatient procedure that is may be done at the same time as a tonsillectomy. Your doctor may want to perform an adenoidectomy if your child: -Has multiple episodes of adenoid infection and subsequent middle ear infections or fluid build-up in the ear. -Shows no improvement of bacterial infection while taking an antibiotic. -Suffers from airway blockage. -Develops obstructive sleep apnea. -Has recurrent episodes of sinusitis. Adenoidectomy recovery for your child may involve several days of mild to moderate pain and discomfort, a runny nose and bad breath. Keep your child well-hydrated with bland, non-carbonated drinks like apple juice and broth, and make sure he or she follows diet as instructed by your surgeon.
8 reasons to visit an ENT specialist
8 reasons to visit an ENT specialist Here are the 8 most common conditions treated: 1. Chronic ear infections This condition is an infection in the air-filled space behind the eardrum. Some people are more prone to getting ear infections. Kids 6 months to 2 years are most susceptible to infections because of the size and shape of their middle ears and eustachian tubes. Often ear infections are a result of another illness that causes congestion and swelling, such as a cold, flu or allergies. Ear infections can be painful, and cause impaired hearing, fever, headache and loss of balance. If your child develops multiple ear infections, it may be time to talk with an ENT provider. Ear infections can affect their ability to hear clearly, so recurrent infections could result in speech, social and developmental delays. Ear tubes are a common treatment for chronic ear infections. During this procedure, an ENT surgeon creates a tiny hole in the eardrum to suction out fluid from the middle ear. Then a tiny tube is placed in the opening to ventilate the ear and prevent the buildup of fluid in the future. Usually, tubes remain in place for four to 18 months and will fall out on their own. 2.Hearing loss If you find yourself turning up the volume on your devices or feel like voices are too soft or mumbling, it may be time to talk with an ENT provider about your hearing. ENT providers work together with audiologists to discover the cause of your hearing loss, ranging from ear infection and a buildup of earwax to ruptured eardrum or damage to your inner ear. Also, if you notice rapid hearing loss all at once or over a few days, you should be evaluated by an ENT provider and audiologist within a few days to a week after noticing the hearing loss. This may be related to what is called "sudden sensorineural hearing loss." 3.Dizziness or vertigo Many body systems, including your inner ear, must work together to maintain balance. About 30% of people in the U.S. experience dizziness or vertigo at some point in their lives. It could be a short-term concern, such as occurring after standing up too quickly, when taking a medication or during a migraine. The most common cause of vertigo is when calcium crystals in your inner ear become dislodged from their normal position. This is called "benign paroxysmal positional vertigo." People often experience symptoms with changes in head position, such as bending over, looking up or rolling over in bed. An ENT provider can help develop a treatment plan to steady your footing and ease your symptoms. 4.Ringing in the ears Tinnitus is commonly referred to as ringing in the ears. This is a recurrent ear or head noise with no external source that lasts longer than five minutes and happens more than once per week. For some people, tinnitus can be extremely bothersome and negatively affect the quality of their lives. While there is no cure for tinnitus, an ENT provider can help with many management strategies to decrease your perception of the ringing sound. 5. Chronic stuffy nose Sinusitis occurs when your sinuses become swollen and inflamed. This swelling interferes with the way mucus normally drains and makes your nose stuffy. You may find it difficult to breathe through your nose, have discolored discharge from your nose or feel tender around the eyes. Long-lasting sinusitis, also called "chronic sinusitis," is classified by a history of sinus infections that don't respond to treatment or symptoms that last longer than three months. Common causes of chronic sinusitis include nasal polyps, deviated nasal septum, repeated respiratory infections, allergies or complications of other conditions. An ENT provider can help determine the best treatment option to help ease your symptoms including medications, antibiotics or surgery. 6.Chronic sore throat or tonsillitis Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat. Symptoms include swollen tonsils, sore throat, difficulty swallowing and tender lymph nodes on the sides of the neck. Because appropriate treatment for tonsillitis depends on the cause, it's important to get a prompt and accurate diagnosis. Surgery to remove tonsils, once a common procedure to treat tonsillitis, is usually performed only when tonsillitis occurs frequently, doesn't respond to other treatments or causes serious complications. 7. Lumps in the neck/enlarged lymph nodes Your lymph nodes, also called lymph glands, play a vital role in your body's ability to fight off infections. You have many lymph nodes in your head and neck. They can become swollen or feel tender, usually due to an infection from bacteria or virus. Most swollen lymph nodes get better on their own within a few weeks, but you should talk with an ENT provider if the lumps get bigger; are present for more than two weeks; feel hard or rubbery; appear for no apparent reason; are associated with chronic sore throat or voice changes; or you are experiencing a fever, night sweats or unexplained weight loss. 8. Sleep apnea Sleep apnea is a serious condition where you repeatedly stop breathing or breathe shallowly while sleeping. When this happens, you may snore loudly or make choking noises as you try to breathe. Your brain and body become oxygen-deprived, and you may wake up. An ENT Doctor may request that you complete a sleep study to measure how well you sleep and how your body responds to sleep problems. This test can help your health care team find out if you have a sleep disorder, how severe it is and the best treatment option for you.
Common Causes of Nasal Congestion
A blocked nose, nasal congestion or a stuffy nose is a common ailment that we will all experience in our lifetimes. That bunged-up feeling in our sinuses, forcing us to breathe through our mouths can be a hindrance on our day-to-day lives, and can be accompanied by excessive mucus or catarrh, headaches, or a stuffy feeling in the head, a red and sore nose, and an impairment in smell and taste.&#13;&#10;&#13;&#10;1.&#9;Turbinate Hypertrophy &#13;&#10;Some symptoms of turbinate hypertrophy include breathing difficulty and snoring because the swelling of the turbinate closes off airflow to the nose.When the nasal septum protrudes to one side, interestingly, the inferior turbinate that becomes inflamed is on the opposite side. That is, if the septum deviates right, it’s the inferior turbinate on the left that is swollen. So, it’s rather common for doctor’s to encounter patients with two blocked nasal passages where one nostril will have the deviated septum and the other nostril will have the enlarged turbinate.&#13;&#10;Surgery and Treatments for Turbinate Hypertrophy&#13;&#10;•&#9;Nasal steroid sprays – reduce mucous inflammation&#13;&#10;•&#9;Remove irritating physical and chemical factors, i.e., dry air, tobacco smoke, stress&#13;&#10;•&#9;Turbinate hypertrophy surgery (turbinoplasty) – turbinate hypertrophy surgery is also referred to as a turbinoplasty. A turbinoplasty opens the nasal airways and can also be performed in conjunction with a septoplasty which is surgery to correct a deviated septum&#13;&#10; &#13;&#10;2. Allergy&#13;&#10;Allergies are caused by the reaction of the body’s immune system to a foreign substance – basically the immune system thinks the substance is dangerous and creates an inflammatory response to get rid of it. On exposure to the allergic trigger, chemical substances are released in the nose including histamine, which causes mucus secretion, mucosal engorgement and sneezing. The severity of the reaction can be varied, from mild nasal congestive symptoms to complete nasal obstruction. Allergic rhinitis may be seasonal and occur during the spring and summer (hay fever), or year round (perennial allergic rhinitis) and usually due to house dust mite and other triggers such as animal dander. Specific allergens causing symptoms can be identified with skin prick tests or blood tests, which will help in guiding treatment.&#13;&#10;3. Nasal polyps&#13;&#10;Benign (non-cancerous) growths in the nostrils, nasal polyps can develop due to chronic inflammatory reaction in the mucous membranes lining the nose and sinuses. The nasal linings humidify the air passing in and out of your nose, and protect the interior of the nose and sinuses. Some people may develop polyps with no apparent cause, but frequently there is a trigger, such as asthma, hay fever, chronic or recurring sinus infections, or sensitivity to NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), like ibuprofen. Nasal polyps can grow large enough to block the nasal passages, causing congestion, or the sensation of a blocked nose, loss of smell, and sometimes sinusitis. Polyps can be diagnosed easily in the clinic, sometimes requiring the help of a simple endoscopic examination of the nose. There are a number of medications that your doctor may prescribe to counter the causes or symptoms of polyps, and if these don’t work, there is a surgical option to have them removed.&#13;&#10; &#13;&#10;4. Sinusitis&#13;&#10;Sinusitis, or sinus infection, is a common condition, in which the nasal passages become inflamed. The nasal sinuses are small cavities or spaces within the skull located behind the cheeks, in the forehead, and between and behind the eyes. The sinuses all open into the nasal cavities. Colds and allergies can cause excess mucus and swelling of the mucosal lining which blocks the sinuses, causing the congestive sensation of a blocked nose.&#13;&#10;Acute sinusitis often occurs with or after a cold, and typically lasts a week or two if caused by a virus, or up to four weeks if caused by bacteria. Sub-acute and chronic sinusitis can last for months, depending on the type of infection. If headache and congestion persists, a simple nasal endoscopy can usually identify and confirm sinusitis. Medical treatment is frequently successful in treating chronic sinusitis, but occasionally the sinuses need to be opened and drained with surgery known as endoscopic sinus surgery. Recently introduced balloon sinuplasty techniques may be useful in opening the narrow drainage channels to restore normal function.&#13;&#10;&#13;&#10;5. Deviated nasal septum.&#13;&#10;A common cause of nasal obstruction which happens when the partition between the sides of the nose, the nasal septum, is bent or deviated to one side or the other. This can result in both sides of the nose feeling blocked. It is commonly, but not necessarily, caused by an injury at some point to the nose. It is usually clear from a simple or endoscopic examination if this is the cause, and, if severe enough, it may warrant surgery to realign it and restore the nasal airway.&#13;&#10; &#13;&#10;6. Overuse of Decongestant spray &#13;&#10;This is an increasingly seen cause of nasal obstruction and a further cause of obstruction which is worth mentioning here. Chronic use of over-the-counter nasal decongestants can cause damage to the lining of the nose with obstruction resulting from the repeated use of these sprays. Once the spray wears off in the early days of use, rebound congestion and blockage results in the need to use more decongestant, and over time this ‘vicious circle’ causes damage to the lining and persistent blockage.&#13;&#10; &#13;&#10;Frequently more than one of the above conditions will coexist for example a patient with allergic rhinitis may have a deviated septum, which in turn may make them more vulnerable to protracted episodes of sinusitis.&#13;&#10;&#13;&#10; 7. Adenoids&#13;&#10;Children with enlarged adenoids may not develop symptoms at all. But in some cases, enlarged adenoids can lead to:&#13;&#10;•&#9;Sore throat.&#13;&#10;•&#9;Nasal congestion.&#13;&#10;•&#9;A feeling of fullness in their ears.&#13;&#10;•&#9;Mouth breathing.&#13;&#10;•&#9;Trouble sleeping.&#13;&#10;•&#9;Snoring.&#13;&#10;•&#9;Obstructive sleep apnea.